Events In History
10 October 1975Waitangi Tribunal created
The Waitangi Tribunal was established to provide 'for the observance and confirmation of the principles' of the Treaty. It initially investigated claims dating from the passage of the Treaty of Waitangi Act, but in 1985 its jurisdiction was extended back to 1840. Read more...
17 October 1877Chief Justice declares Treaty 'worthless' and a 'simple nullity'
Sir James Prendergast's statements, made when delivering a reserved judgment in the case of Wi Parata v The Bishop of Wellington, would influence government decision-making on Treaty of Waitangi issues for decades. Read more...
30 October 1865Native Land Court created
The Native Land Court was one of the key products of the 1865 Native Lands Act. It converted traditional communal landholdings into individual titles, making it easier for Pākehā to purchase Māori land. Read more...
11 March 1845The fall of Kororāreka
As 600 Ngāpuhi warriors led by Kawiti and Hōne Heke descended on Kororāreka, citizens were evacuated to the ships Victoria and Active. For the fourth and last time, the flagstaff on Maiki Hill was cut down. Read more...
19 January 1845Hōne Heke cuts down the British flagstaff - again
Initially supportive of the Treaty of Waitangi, Hōne Heke became increasingly disenchanted with the effects of European colonisation. This was his third attack on the flagstaff at Kororāreka (Russell). Read more...
21 May 1840Hobson proclaims British sovereignty over NZ
Lieutenant-Governor Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty over all of New Zealand: over the North Island on the basis of cession through the Treaty of Waitangi, and over the southern islands by right of discovery. Read more...
6 February 1840The Treaty of Waitangi is signed
More than 40 Māori chiefs, led by Ngāpuhi's Hōne Heke Pokai, signed the Treaty of Waitangi in the Bay of Islands. Read more...
Page 1 – The 1940 Centennial
Exactly what New Zealand celebrated 100 years after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and how it was celebrated offer an ideal opportunity to examine aspects of the growth of a distinct New Zealand identity.
- Page 1 - The 1940 Centennial Between 8 November 1939 and 4 May 1940 more than 2.6 million people visited the New Zealand Centennial Exhibition in Wellington; this represents an average daily attendance
Page 1 – Waitangi Day
Every year on 6 February, New Zealand marks the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. For most people, Waitangi Day is a holiday; for many, and especially for Māori, it is
Page 3 – Waitangi Day 1940s-1950s
From the 1940s the Treaty and Waitangi began to find a place in the national consciousness. For most New Zealanders, they were of historical interest only.
Page 1 – The Treaty in practice
Amalgamating Māori into colonial settler society was a key part of British policy in New Zealand after 1840. Economic and social change, along with land-purchase programmes,
Page 2 – Slide to war
War raged in the North Island in the mid-19th century. The period from 1860, when conflict broke out in Taranaki, through to about 1872, is commonly called the New Zealand Wars
Page 3 – Obtaining land
How to obtain land for European settlement was always a key issue in New Zealand. With the wars of the 1860s, a new legal system backed up conquest as a means of gaining Māori
Page 4 – Shared issues and approaches
Prospects for Māori looked bleak at the beginning of the 20th century. A shared sense of grievance emerged, and new leaders paved the way for new approaches to the Crown.
Page 5 – Growing interest in the Treaty
The early 20th century saw new approaches to dealing with Māori grievances and a renewed interest in the Treaty of Waitangi as the nation's founding document.
Page 6 – The Treaty debated
Modern New Zealand has debated the Treaty of Waitangi as never before. Understanding, reconciliation, protest and confrontation have been part of this process.
Page 7 – The Ngāi Tahu claim
Ngāi Tahu signed a Deed of Settlement with the Crown in 1998. This completed almost 150 years of the tribe's struggle to have the Crown honour its obligations under the
Page 1 – Treaty events 1800-49
See some of the key events between 1800 and 1849 relating to the Treaty of Waitangi.
Page 2 – Treaty events 1850-99
See the key events between 1850 and 1899 relating to the Treaty of Waitangi.
Page 3 – Treaty events 1900-49
Discover some of the key events between 1900 and 1949 relating to the Treaty of Waitangi.
Page 4 – Treaty events since 1950
Learn about some of the key events from 1950 onwards relating to the Treaty of Waitangi.
Page 1 – Treaty biographies
Information about some of the key people who have featured in the story of the Treaty of Waitangi
- Page 1 - Treaty biographiesInformation about some of the key people who have featured in the story of the Treaty of
Page 1 – The Treaty in brief
The Treaty of Waitangi is New Zealand’s founding document. It takes its name from the place in the Bay of Islands where it was first signed, on 6 February 1840. The Treaty is
Page 2 – Treaty FAQs
Answers to some common questions about the Treaty of Waitangi.
Page 1 – Political and constitutional timeline
Pivotal political and constitutional events with links to further information
- Page 1 - Political and constitutional timelinePivotal political and constitutional events with links to further
Page 1 – Making the Treaty of Waitangi
New Zealand's founding document, the Treaty of Waitangi, was prepared over just a few days in February 1840. Several versions of the Treaty were taken around the country for
Page 2 – Signing the Treaty
By the end of 1840 about 540 Maori, including 13 women, had signed the Treaty of Waitangi; all but 39 signed the Maori text. Some had clear expectations about what their
Page 3 – Treaty of Waitangi signing locations
Map showing where the various versions of the Treaty of Waitangi were signed.
Page 1 – History of New Zealand, 1769-1914
In the period between the first European landings and the First World War, New Zealand was transformed from an exclusively Māori world into one in which Pākehā dominated
- Page 1 - History of New Zealand, 1769-1914 In the period between the first European landings and the First World War, New Zealand was transformed from an exclusively Māori world into one in which Pākehā dominated
Page 1 – Read the Treaty
Transcript of the English version of the original Treaty of Waitangi document.
Page 2 – Māori text
Transcript of the Māori version of the original Treaty of Waitangi document.
Page 3 – Differences between the texts
The Treaty of Waitangi has two texts. The Maori version is not an exact translation of the English, and there are important differences.
Page 4 – Preserving the documents
The Treaty of Waitangi is on permanent display in the Constitution Room at Archives New Zealand in Wellington. It has not always been so secure. Water, time and rodents all
Page 3 – Crown colony era
New Zealand became a British colony in 1840, legitimised by the Treaty of Waitangi and Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson's declaration of 21 May declaring sovereignty over the
- Page 3 - Crown colony eraNew Zealand became a British colony in 1840, legitimised by the Treaty of Waitangi and Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson's declaration of 21 May declaring sovereignty over the
Page 3 – The land issue
The pressure to sell land was a key factor in the creation of the Kīngitanga. Before European settlement Māori could not sell land and few chiefs had the mana or authority to
- Page 3 - The land issueThe pressure to sell land was a key factor in the creation of the Kīngitanga. Before European settlement Māori could not sell land and few chiefs had the mana or authority to
Page 4 – Raupatu
Under the terms of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 the government confiscated 1.2 million acres (486,000 hectares) of Māori land in late 1864.
- Page 4 - RaupatuUnder the terms of the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 the government confiscated 1.2 million acres (486,000 hectares) of Māori land in late
Page 3 – Overview of NZ in the 19th century: 1840-70
Brief survey of New Zealand from the Treaty of Waitangi to the New Zealand Wars for NCEA Level 3 History
Page 5 – Revision activities for NCEA Level 3 history
The Treaty of Waitangi is central to understanding the broad survey of New Zealand in the 19th century. It affected the lives of New Zealanders in the 19th century, affected
Page 5 – The Treaty of Waitangi
Despite all the talk of the 'birth of a nation', the place of the Treaty of Waitangi or Māori in the centennial celebrations was less obvious.
- Page 5 - The Treaty of WaitangiDespite all the talk of the 'birth of a nation', the place of the Treaty of Waitangi or Māori in the centennial celebrations was less
Page 5 – Land issues on the eve of the Treaty of Waitangi
In the late 1830s the British government became concerned about how land was being obtained from Māori. Action was needed, it decided, to protect Māori from the worst ravages
Page 6 – A separate Crown colony
Protecting Māori, regulating land purchases, controlling the activities of settlers and dealing with the potential influx of migrants underpinned British policy in 1839. New
Heke Pokai, Hone Wiremu
Bay of Islands Ngā Puhi chief Hone Heke was an influential Māori voice in favour of the Treaty of Waitangi. However he later became a leading opponent of British rule in New Zealand.Read more...
Riperata Kahutia became a well-known figure in the Poverty Bay region through her claims in the Native Land Court and the Poverty Bay Commission.Read more...
Kawiti, Te Ruki
A notable Ngā Puhi chief and warrior and a skilled military tactician who reluctantly signed the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840.Read more...
Nene, Tāmati Wāka
Renowned Ngāpuhi chief, Tāmati Wāka Nene, was an early friend of Pākehā. He was one of its most influential supporters in the debate at Waitangi over the Treaty and he was among the first to sign.Read more...
Ngāpua, Hōne Heke
Hōne Heke Ngāpua was elected to Parliament in 1893 and represented the people of Northern Māori almost continuously until his death in 1909.Read more...
Pōmare II was a prominent Ngāpuhi chief who signed the Treaty of Waitangi. He was later arrested by the British on suspicion of treason but released on the intervention of Tāmati Wāka Nene.Read more...
Aperahama Taonui, of the Te Popoto sub-tribe of Ngāpuhi, was a founding member of the Kotahitanga movement, which evolved into the Māori parliaments of the 1890s.Read more...
Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia
Ngāti Maru and Ngati Tamaterā chief who rejected the intrusion of Europeans in the traditional Māori world.Read more...
Hawke's Bay chief, Te Hāpuku, signed the 1835 Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi. He opposed the King Movement fought against the Hauhau and Te Kooti.Read more...
Te Heuheu Tūkino III, Iwikau
A paramount chief of Ngāti Tūwharetoa, Iwikau Te Heuheu was an ardent proponent of Māori nationalism, supporting the movement to set up a Māori king.Read more...
Te Rauparaha was a Ngāti Toa chief and warrior. Sometimes called the 'Napoleon of the Southern Hemisphere', he ruled the lower end of the North Island from his base at Kapiti Island for the best part of 20 yearsRead more...
Te Whiwhi, Hēnare Mātene
Hēnare Mātene Te Whiwhi promoted the idea of a Māori monarch, which he believed would be vital to protect Māori land.Read more...
Topeora, Rangi Kuini Wikitoria
A signatory to the Treaty of Waitangi, Rangi Topeora was often referred to as the Queen of the South. She was a noted composer and mediator, and rejected European clothing throughout her life.Read more...
After a lengthy Royal Navy career in which he saw action in the Napoleonic Wars and was twice captured by pirates in the Caribbean, William Hobson (1792-1842) became New Zealand's first Governor.Read more...
Buick, Thomas Lindsay
Politician, journalist and historian Thomas Buick produced a biography of Te Rauparaha before publishing his best known and most important book, The Treaty of Waitangi, in 1914Read more...
Biography of Thomas Bunbury gathered signatures for the Treaty of Waitangi in the South Island and Steward Island.Read more...
Edinburgh-born James Busby was British Resident, a consular representative, in New Zealand from 1833. Based at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands, he was given little material support to achieve British policy aims, but in early 1840 he helped William Hobson draft the Treaty of Waitangi.Read more...
Lawyer James Prendergast was New Zealand's third chief justice.Read more...
William Spain was a land commissioner who investigated the New Zealand Company's claims that it had purchased 20 million acres in 1839. The claims were not settled until several years after Spain's deathRead more...
Colenso arrived at the Bay of Islands as the Church Mission printer in December 1834. His achievements include printing the New Testamont in Māori and the Māori version of the Treaty of Waitangi.Read more...
Henry Williams was a missionary who supported British annexation. He believed that Maori should be protected from lawless Europeans and fraudulent dealings. He and his son Edward translated the Treaty of Waitangi into Maori.Read more...
Te Kawau, Āpihai
Te Kawau was a Nāgti Whātua leader who signed the Treaty of Waitangi at Manukau Harbour in March 1840. He later worked with European magistrates to settle disputes among Māori.Read more...
- aperahama taonui
- moka te kainga-mataa
- william hobson
- thomas bunbury
- edward shortland
- hone heke
- te ruki kawiti
- tamati waka nene
- james prendergast
- waitangi day
- waitangi tribunal
- roadside stories
- dominion of new zealand
- pre-1840 contact
- new zealand wars
- julius vogel
- reform party
- liberal party
- queen elizabeth
- te atairangikaahu
- jim bolger
- william williams
- riwha titokowaru
- maori land
- treaty signatories
- land claims
- treaty house
- michael joseph savage
- treaty claims
- bastion point
- te aitanga-a-mahaki
- riperata kahutia
- maori land court
- apihai te kawau
- ngati whatua
- musket wars
- maori leaders
- new zealand company
- william spain
- ngati toa
- ngati raukawa
- wairau incident
- henare te whiwhi
- law reform
- thomas buick
- historical writing
- te rauparaha
- ngati tamatera
- tāraia ngākuti te tumuhuia
- ngati maru
- pomare II
- northern war
- ngati tuwharetoa
- iwikau te heuheu tukino iii
- ngati kahungunu
- te hapuku
- rangi topeora
- Maori MPs
- hone heke ngapua
- workers rights
- legislative council
- robert fitzroy
- george gipps
- british empire
- te reo
- william colenso
- declaration of independence
- tahupotiki wiremu ratana
- mission bay
- donald mclean
- pai marire
- tukaroto potatau matutaera tawhiao
- land confiscation
- james carroll
- apirana ngata
- maori health
- henry williams
- coromandel town
- ngai tahu
- douglas graham
- thomas hocken
- national identity
- royal tours
- race relations
- waikato wars
- george grey
- whina cooper
- nga tamatoa
- matiaha tiramorehu
- james busby
- rua kenana
- wiremu pomare
- elizabeth pulman
- land wars
- te kooti
- george clarke
- james stephen
- united tribes
- public holidays