Tensions ease - Maori King movement 1860-94

Normalising relations

It was clear by the 1870s that the Kingitanga posed no threat beyond its borders and was in no fit shape to fight a war. Attempts were made to ease relations between the king and the colonial government, and Tawhiao met Native Minister Donald McLean at Waitomo in 1875. Reserves of land on the west bank of the Waikato River were offered in exchange for taking the oath of allegiance. Tawhiao rejected the offer.

In 1878 Sir George Grey, now the premier, attended the Maehe, an annual hui that saw Kingitanga subjects renew their allegiance and commitment to oppose land selling. Grey's presence was viewed as another step towards normalising relations with the government while retaining the aims of the Kingitanga.

Of greater significance to settlers and the government was the formal act of peace made by the King movement in 1881 at Alexandra (Pirongia). Tawhiao and 500 supporters appeared before the resident magistrate, Major William Mair, and laid down their weapons. This was quickly followed by another attempt to persuade Tawhiao to take the oath of allegiance and open the King Country to settlement. The king was offered a pension, a position as a legislative councillor, the return of 20,000 acres (8100 hectares) of confiscated lands and a furnished house. Tawhiao refused, and continued to bargain for independent authority and the return of all confiscated lands.

In 1892, however, he accepted a government pension. Tawhiao argued that his acceptance was a test of the government's sincerity in promising that he could retain the title of king and control local Maori affairs. Other Waikato leaders were outraged, and Tawhiao was forced to reject the offer.

New initiatives and rebuilding

In 1884 Tawhiao led a deputation to England to petition Queen Victoria. He sought an independent Maori parliament and an independent commission of inquiry into the land confiscations. He stressed that the Kingitanga was not separatist and did not reject the Queen's authority. It was rather an attempt to unify Maori so that they might more effectively claim the Queen's protection. In his view the Maori King and the British Queen could peacefully coexist, with God over both. Maori felt they had a special relationship with their Treaty partner, Queen Victoria, and believed they had a right to meet with her in person. They were to be disappointed. They met instead with Lord Derby at the Colonial Office who referred the petition back to the New Zealand government on the grounds that the imperial government no longer had responsibility for such matters. The New Zealand government dismissed it.

From 1886 'King committees' operated at Whatiwhatihoe, Kawhia, Aotea, Thames and Ohinemuri, providing local government within Kingitanga territory. These committees issued summonses, heard cases, opposed surveys and blocked government works wherever possible. They also operated in opposition to the committees set up under the Native Committees Act 1883.

A petition was sent to the native minister calling for a Maori legislative council, but this was merely met with another offer to Tawhiao of a seat in the colonial Legislative Council. The Kingitanga made plans for its own parliament, the Kauhanganui, which was set up at Maungakawa, near Cambridge, around 1889 or 1890. The Kauhanganui enabled Tawhiao to communicate with his subjects through tribally appointed delegates.

How to cite this page: 'Tensions ease - Maori King movement 1860-94', URL: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/the-maori-king-movement-1860-94/tensions-ease, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 20-Dec-2012