The Musket Wars of the 1810s-1830s caused thousands of Māori to flee their traditional lands, freeing large areas for Pākehā (European) settlement.
In 1840, Europeans bought one desirable but depopulated area, Auckland, for a tiny amount. This purchase sowed the seeds for interracial conflict. Ngāpuhi, led by Hōne Heke, felt betrayed when trade slumped after the new colonial government quit the Bay of Islands for Auckland. In 1845, Heke and Te Ruki Kawiti (an expert at designing modern pa able to resist artillery bombardment) launched a campaign that threatened British control in the north. But other Ngāpuhi supported the government, and the conflict fizzled out. (Read more about the Northern War).
On 17 June 1843, 22 Europeans and four Māori were killed when an armed party of New Zealand Company settlers and Ngāti Toa clashed over the purchase of land in the Wairau valley near today's town of Blenheim. The new Governor, Robert FitzRoy, maintained that the Māori had been provoked by the unreasonable actions of the Europeans and no further action was taken.
Then FitzRoy's successor, the energetic Governor George Grey moved to secure Wellington and Whanganui against allies of Te Rauparaha. Fighting flared briefly but died away when other southern North Island Māori backed the economically valuable Pākehā.
The 1850s brought uneasy peace. Settlers and sheep spread across the South Island, which had never had many Māori inhabitants. But in the North Island most colonists remained stuck in coastal settlements.
In 1854 the first New Zealand parliament met in Auckland. Initially the Governor retained more power but by 1856 the settlers had achieved ‘responsible’ government. The development of responsible settler government reflected the increase in Pākehā numbers. By 1858 there were more Europeans than Māori. As new settlements grew, the pressure on Māori land increased. Most members of Parliament believed their first responsibility was to the settlers who had elected them to office.
The British government had always intended for New Zealand to pay its own way. In 1860 Māori still held 80% of the North Island. Many Māori had taken up commercial farming to supply the settlers. Acquiring Māori land – especially land that Pākehā deemed to be ‘wasteland’ or unoccupied – was an important part of that policy.