Cyprian Bridge, View of the left angle of Heke's pah at Ohaiawai that was stormed on the 1st July, 1845.
A trench between 5 and 6 feet deep ran around the perimeter of the pa just inside the inner fence. Firing steps were cut into the side of this trench. Warriors could stand on the trench floor while loading and then step up to fire at ground level through gaps left in the palisade wall. Being able to rest their guns on the ground as they fired increased their accuracy. Note the Maori fighter in position with the British.