Events In History
2 March 1865Missionary Carl Völkner killed at Ōpotiki
Völkner's killers maintained that he had been acting as a government agent. In the aftermath land was confiscated and allocated to military settlers. Read more...
10 January 1838Catholic missionaries arrive at Hokianga
French Bishop Jean Baptiste François Pompallier, a priest and brother of the Society of Mary, arrived at Hokianga. His party celebrated their first mass three days later. Read more...
6 June 1823Wesleyan mission established
Samuel Leigh and William White established Wesleydale, a Wesleyan (Methodist) mission station at Kaeo. Leigh was friendly with Samuel Marsden of the Church Missionary Society and the two missions worked closely together. Read more...
25 December 1814NZ's first Christian service?
At Oihi Beach in the Bay of Islands, Marsden preached in English to a largely Māori gathering, launching the Christian missionary phase of New Zealand history. Read more...
After charting the coastline, European surveying and exploration of the interior were a fundamental part of the settlement process, defining the boundaries of ownership and identifying resources, useable land and access routes.
- Page 1 - Exploring New Zealand's interior After charting the coastline, European surveying and exploration of the interior were a fundamental part of the settlement process, defining the boundaries of ownership and
The Christian missionaries of the pre-1840s have been described as the 'agents of virtue in a world of vice', although they were not immune to moral blemish themselves.
Page 2 – Establishing the Church Missionary Society
Samuel Marsden was a key figure in the establishment of the first Christian mission in New Zealand.
Page 3 – Men of vice or virtue?
Thomas Kendall established the first mission school, but he was later suspended after admitting an adulterous affair with a Maori woman.
Page 4 – Fixing God's house
Henry Williams, who had been ordained a priest in 1822 'for the cure of souls in his majesty's foreign possessions', inherited a mission beset by problems.
Page 5 – Wesleyans and Catholics
How Maori responded to the arrival of Wesleyan and Catholic missionaries in the Bay of Islands
Page 6 – Printing the word of God
From the mid-1830s the printed word became a new weapon in the campaign to bring Christianity to Maori.
Page 7 – Further information
Publications and links with information about pre-1840 missionaries
Pai Marire (goodness and peace) was one of several Maori Christian faiths to emerge in the 19th century. Like many others, it was closely tied to issues of land and politics.
Page 3 – The death of Carl Völkner
The ritual killing by Pai Mārire followers of missionary Carl Völkner in 1865 shocked many people. The government used the event as a reason to take harsh action against Pai
In the years before the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, relations between Māori and Europeans were marred by a number of high-profile incidents.
Page 5 – Captain Stewart and the Elizabeth
In 1830 Captain William Stewart of the brig Elizabeth made an arrangement with the Ngāti Toa leader Te Rauparaha to ferry a taua (war party) of 100 warriors from his base on
In 1832 James Busby was appointed as the official British Resident to New Zealand. After arriving in the Bay of Islands in May 1833 he took steps to tame what he saw as a chaotic frontier society.
Page 5 – Land issues on the eve of the Treaty of Waitangi
In the late 1830s the British government became concerned about how land was being obtained from Māori. Action was needed, it decided, to protect Māori from the worst ravages
The first execution in New Zealand was that of a young Maori named Maketu, convicted at Auckland in 1842. Walter Bolton became the last to be executed when he was hanged at Mount Eden prison in 1957. In total there were 83 verified executions for murder and one for treason in New Zealand between these dates.
- Page 2 - The first executionOn 7 March 1842 Maketu Wharetotara, the 17-year-old son of the Ngāpuhi chief Ruhe of Waimate, became the first person to be legally executed in New
Lay missionary George Clarke reluctantly became "Chief Protector of Aborigines" in 1840, leading a department of sub-protectors whose role was to look after Maori interests.Read more...
Colenso arrived at the Bay of Islands as the Church Mission printer in December 1834. His achievements include printing the New Testamont in Māori and the Māori version of the Treaty of Waitangi.Read more...
Grace, Thomas Samuel
Thomas Grace was a deacon of the Church Missionary society. He set up a mission station in Pūkawa, Taupō, but had to leave Pūkawa less than a decade later. He, along with Carl Völkner, were captured by Pai Mārire members, but Grace was released unharmed while Völkner was killed.Read more...
Reverand Samuel Marsden was the driving force behind the establishment of Anglican mission stations in New Zealand.Read more...
Selwyn, George Augustus
Bishop of New Zealand George Selwyn became fluent in the Maori language and became and advocate for Maori land rights.Read more...
Anglican priest Richard Taylor had a great influence on Māori in the Whanganui region, and by the early 1850s as many as two-thirds of the Māori population in his district.Read more...
Henry Williams was a missionary who supported British annexation. He believed that Maori should be protected from lawless Europeans and fraudulent dealings. He and his son Edward translated the Treaty of Waitangi into Maori.Read more...
Pompallier, Jean Baptiste Francois
A French bishop living amongst hostile British settlers in New Zealand, Pompallier was sympathetic to Māori concerns, and for his time had an enlightened view towards Māori.Read more...
Völkner, Carl Sylvius
On 2 March 1865 Carl Völkner, a German-born missionary, was hanged from a willow tree near his church at Opotiki. His death was attributed to the followers of a new religion, Pai Marire, who suspected Völkner of spying for the government.Read more...
Te Ua Haumēne
In 1862 Te Ua Haumēne established a new religion, Hauhau based on the principle of pai marire – goodness and peace. Most settlers viewed Hauhau as a anti-European religion that became synonymous with ‘violence, fanaticism and barbarism’.Read more...
Aubert, Mary Joseph
Suzanne Aubert – later Mary Joseph Aubert – was a Catholic nun, nurse, teacher and pioneering social worker, who sometimes had to battle church and government authorities in order to help those in need.Read more...
Thomas Kendall was one of New Zealand’s first Christian missionaries. He pioneered the transcription of the Māori language, and also investigated how Māori understood the universe.Read more...
An early missionary and linguist, William Williams later came to criticise the government's dealings during the New Zealand Wars.Read more...
- thomas kendall
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- william williams
- samuel marsden
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- samuel leigh
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- mary aubert
- hone heke
- northern war
- roadside stories
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- treaty of waitangi
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- famous firsts
- george augustus selwyn
- richard taylor
- thomas grace
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- gate pa
- george clarke
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- te ati awa
- te ua haumene
- maori leaders
- te reo
- william colenso
- declaration of independence
- kereopa te rau
- land confiscation
- maori language
- jean baptiste pompallier
- henry williams
- european discovery
- new plymouth
- octavius hadfield
- ngati toa
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- new zealand company
- te rauparaha
- kapiti island
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